On the 28th day of the war between Ukraine and Russia, Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov reported that they approached the possibility of NATO peacekeeping force deployment in Ukraine negatively. “Any contact between our military and the NATO Army could lead to difficult and irreparable consequences,” Peskov said in a statement (Birgün, 2022). This statement brought the UN Peacekeeping operations and UN Peacekeeping forces around the world to the agenda.
The UN has been carrying out peacekeeping operations since 1948. To date, the UN has carried out 71 Peacekeeping operations with the participation of 125 countries. The UN currently is carrying out 12 Peacekeeping operations with the participation of approximately 90,000 personnel worldwide. Information on current operations as follows (UN, 2022):
Ongoing peacekeeping operations established by the UN
|Operation||Established||Aim||Top ten military contributors (as of December 2021)|
|MINURSO, Western Sahara||1991||The preparation of a referendum in which the people of Western Sahara would choose between independence and integration with Morocco.||Bangladesh, Ghana, Egypt, Pakistan, China, Honduras, Brazil, Russia, Hungary, Malaysia|
|MINUSCA, Central African Republic||2014||Support for the transition process; facilitating humanitarian assistance; promotion and protection of human rights; support for justice and the rule of law; and disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation processes.||Ruanda, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Egypt, Zambia, Morocco, Cameroon, Nepal, Burundi, Mauritania|
|MINUSMA, Mali||2013||Ensuring security, stabilization and protection of civilians; supporting national political dialogue and reconciliation; and assisting the reestablishment of State authority, the rebuilding of the security sector, and the promotion and protection of human rights in that country.||Military: Chad, Bangladesh, Egypt, Senegal, Togo, Burkina Faso, Nijer, Ivory Coast, Guinea, Germany|
Police: Senegal, Togo, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Egypt, Benin, Nigeria, Nijer, Ivory Coast, Chad
|MONUSCO, Democratic Republic of the Congo||2010||Protection of civilians, humanitarian personnel and human rights defenders under imminent threat of physical violence and to support the Government of the DRC in its stabilization and peace consolidation efforts.||Military: Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, South Africa, Nepal, Morocco, Tanzania, Uruguay, Malawi |
Police: Senegal, Egypt, Jordan, Bangladesh, India, Ivory Coast, Togo, Niger, Djibouti, Burkina Faso
|UNDOF, Golan||1974||To maintain the ceasefire between the Israeli and Syrian forces and supervise the implementation of the disengagement agreement.||Nepal, Uruguay, India, Fiji, Ireland, Ghana, Bhutan, Czech Republic, Netherlands|
|UNFICYP, Cyprus||1964||To supervise ceasefire lines, maintain a buffer zone, undertake humanitarian activities and support the good offices mission of the Secretary-General.||Military: UK, Argentina, Slovakia, Paraguay, Hungary, Serbia, Chile, Russia, Austria, Pakistan|
Police: Ireland, Bosnia Herzegovina, Russia, Slovakia, China, Ukraine, Finland, Jordan, Bulgaria, Italy
|UNIFIL, Lebanon||1978||To monitor the cessation of hostilities; accompany and support the Lebanese armed forces as they deploy throughout the south of Lebanon; and extend its assistance to help ensure humanitarian access to civilian populations and the voluntary and safe return of displaced persons.||Indonesia, Italy, India, Ghana, Nepal, Malaysia, Spain, France, China, Ireland|
|UNISFA; Abyei||2011||Monitoring the flashpoint border between north and south and facilitating the delivery of humanitarian aid, and using force in protecting civilians and humanitarian workers in Abyei.||Military: Ethiopia, China, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Ruanda, Nepal, Burundi, India, Indonesia |
Police: Ruanda, Ghana, Ethiopia, Jordan, Kenya, Nigeria, Egypt, Fiji, India, Namibia
|UNMIK, Kosovo||1999||Promotion of security, stability and respect for human rights in Kosovo.||Military: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Finland, Poland, Moldova |
Police: Germany, Russia, Austria, Bulgaria, Finland, Slovenia, Turkey, UK
|UNMISS, South Sudan||2011||Protection of civilians, human rights monitoring, and support for the delivery of humanitarian assistance and for the implementation of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement.||Military: Ruanda, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, China, Mongolia, Ghana, Pakistan, Republic of Korea |
Police: Ruanda, Ghana, Nepal, India, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Gambia, Turkey, Ethiopia
|UNMOGIP; India and Pakistan||1949||Observing developments pertaining to the strict observance of the ceasefire of 17 December 1971 and report thereon to the Secretary-General.||Croatia, Republic of Korea, Philippines, Thailand, Sweden, Switzerland, Uruguay, Argentina, Italy, Romania|
|UNTSO, Middle East||1948||Monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating and assist other UN peacekeeping operations in the region to fulfil their respective mandates.||Finland, Austria, Norway, Switzerland, Ireland, Denmark, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, Canada|
Additional information regarding the UN’s ongoing Peacekeeping operations as follow:
United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO); consists of civilians, contingent troops, experts on Mission, police, staff officer, UN volunteers, and military personnel. Total personnel: 450. Approved budget: $60,908,900.
United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA); consists of civilians, experts on Mission, police, staff officer, troops, and UN volunteers. Total personnel: 15,663. Approved budget: $1,116,738,700.
United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA); consists of civilians, police, staff officer, troops, and UN volunteers. Total personnel: 18,108. Approved budget: $1,262,194,200
United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO); consists of civilians, experts on Mission, police, staff officer, troops, and UN volunteers. Total personnel: 17,783. Approved budget: $1,123,346,600.
United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF); consists of civilians, staff officer, and troops. Total personnel: 1250. Approved budget: $65,507,400.
United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP); consists of civilians, police, staff officer, troops, and UN volunteers. Total personnel: 1005. Approved budget: $57,567,300.
United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL); consists of civilians, staff officer, and troops. Total personnel: 10,638. Approved budget: $510,251,500.
United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA); consists of civilians, experts on Mission, police, staff officer, troops, and UN volunteers. Total personnel: 3801. Approved budget: $280,581,200.
United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK); consists of civilians, Experts on Mission, police, and UN volunteers. Total personnel: 355. Approved budget: $44,192,100.
United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS); consists of civilians, experts on Mission, police, staff officer, troops, and UN volunteers. Total personnel: 17,982. Approved budget: $1,201,887,500.
United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP); consists of civilians, and experts on Mission. Total personnel: 111. Approved budget: $10,519,800.
United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), The first Peacekeeping operation established by the United Nations. UNTSO consists of civilians and experts on Mission. Total personnel: 388. Approved budget: $36.501.000.
How to establish UN Peacekeeping Force for the Ukraine-Russia War
In order to organize peacekeeping operations, first of all, the weapons must be silenced on the battlefield and a ceasefire must be established between the relevant parties. Subsequently, the UN Security Council should make a decision within the scope of chapter VII of the UN Convention, regarding the deployment of the UN Peacekeeping Force in Ukraine, and then the member states should explain their contribution to the peacekeeping operation. Countries which contribute the peacekeeping force should not be a party to the conflict.
Russia sees NATO on the Ukrainian side in this war; for this reason, only NATO sending armed forces to Ukraine under the name of Peacekeeping is not accepted by Russia, but as can be seen in the chart above, only NATO member countries do not participate in UN Peacekeeping operations. If Russia and Ukraine sign a ceasefire with political will, it is possible to create a UN Peacekeeping Force for the Ukraine-Russia war with the contribution of other countries. UN Peacekeeping operations help the relevant parties to reach lasting peace in conflicts between countries and in a country with domestic problems. Thus, with the UN peacekeeping operations, carried out with only 0.5% of the budget spent on armament in the world in a year, the political process is supported and the lives of thousands of people are saved.
According to the nature of the mission, personnel who will participate in the UN peacekeeping operation, and the size of the mission is determined. For less casualties and less violence, a ceasefire must be signed without delay in the Ukraine-Russia war, and then the UN Peacekeeping force should be deployed to Ukraine, taking into account the sensitivities of the parties. Achieving this particularly depends on the attitude of Russia, a member of the UN Security Council with veto power, which is also one of the parties to the war.